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这学年教4年级(1、2、3班)

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牛津小学英语总复习资料3  

2013-05-18 18:49:24|  分类: 旧版牛津牛津 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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十八、现在进行时

1.现在进行时表示现在正在进行或发生的动作。常与now连用,当句首有look, listen时,也用现在进行时。

2.现在进行时肯定句的基本结构为:主语+ be动词+动词的现在分词(doing,即动词的ing形式)

1)其中be动词随着主语的变化而变化,be动词包括am, is, are

2)动词现在分词的变化规则:

A 一般情况下,直接在动词后加ing,如:cook-cooking.

B 以不发音的e结尾的动词,去掉e后加ing,如:make-making, dance-dancing.

C 重读闭音节结尾的动词双写末尾字母后加ing, run-running, swim-swimming.

D ie结尾的动词iey再加ing, lie-lying, die-dying.

3.现在进行时的否定句:在be动词后面加not

4.现在进行时的一般疑问句:把be动词提到句首,首字母大写,句尾改成问号。

十九、一般现在时

1.一般现在时表示一般情况下经常发生的动作或存在的状态。常与 usually, sometimes, often, always等词连用。

2.一般现在时的谓语动词为be动词时,be的变化遵循我用am, 你用are, is用在他她它,复数全用are”的规律。

3.一般现在时的谓语动词为其它动词时,当主语为第三人称单数时,动词要用第三人称单数形式。如:Mary likes Chinese.玛丽喜欢汉语。

4.动词第三人称单数的变化规则:

1)一般的动词,直接在词尾加s,如:cook-cooks, like-likes.

2 sxshcho等结尾的动词,加es,如:wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes, do-does.

3)以辅音字母加y结尾的动词,变yi, 再加es,如:study-studies.

4)不规则变化,如:have-has.  

5.一般现在时的变化:

1be动词的变化。

否定句:主语+ be + not +其它。如:He is not a worker.他不是一名工人。  

一般疑问句Be +主语+其它? 如:Are you a student?  

特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句?如:Where is my bike?

2)行为动词的变化。

否定句:主语+ don't( doesn't ) +动词原形(+其它)。如:I don't like bread.   

当主语为第三人称单数时,要用doesn't构成否定句。如:He doesn't like PE.  

一般疑问句Do( Does ) +主语+动词原形+其它? 如:Do you often play chess?    

当主语为第三人称单数时,要用does构成一般疑问句。如:Does she like PE?    

特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句?如:How does your father go to work?

二十、一般过去时

1.一般过去时表示在过去的某一时间里发生的事情,我们用动词的过去式来表示。常与yesterday, last nightjust now, a moment ago等表示过去的时间状语连用。

2.be动词在一般过去时中的变化:
(1)am
is在一般过去时中变为was。(was not=wasn’t

(2)are在一般过去时中变为were。(were not=weren’t

(3)带有waswere的句子,其否定句、疑问句的变化和is, am, are一样,即否定句在waswere后加not,一般疑问句把waswere提到句首。

3.句中没有be动词的一般过去时的句子:

否定句:didn’t +动词原形,如:Jim didn’t go home yesterday.

一般疑问句:在句首加did,句子中的动词过去式变回原形,如:Did Jim go home yesterday?

4.动词过去式变化规则:

1)一般情况下,在动词原形后面加ed,如:cook-cooked.

2)以不发音的e结尾的单音节词,只加d,如:taste-tasted.

3)以辅音字母加y结尾的词,变yi,再加ed,如:study-studied.

(4) 以重读闭音节或r结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母的词,要双写这个字母后再加ed,如:stop-stopped.

(5)不规则变化,如:go-went, sit-sat.

二十一、一般将来时

1.一般将来时表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。常常与tomorrow, next Sunday等时间状语连用。

2.基本结构:

1be going to do sth.
2will do sth.

3.否定句:在be动词(am, is, are, was, were)或will后加not

4.一般疑问句:be动词或will提到句首,some改为any, and改为or,第一、二人称互换。

二十二、some /any

肯定句:I have some toys in my bedroom.

一般疑问句和否定句中:Do you have any brothers or sisters?

                 He doesn’t have  any pencils in his pencil case.

表示建议、请求等:Would you like some juice?  

             Can I have some stamps?

二十三、祈使句

Sit down, please.

Don’t open the door..

Let’s go to the park.

时态

小学阶段一共学了四种时态,分别是:一般现在时,一般将来时,现在进行时,一般过去时。下面我们一一进行总结。
1
        一般现在时
A
、表示不受时限的客观存在
如:He is a boy.  She is a student.  My mother is a nurse.
This is a dog.  I have a story-book.
B
、表示现在的习惯动作,即指现在经常发生的动作,一般现在时常用来表示现在时间里某种动作的经常性和习惯性。它常与表示程度或频度的词连用,如:often(经常) , usually(通常,一般) , sometimes(有时) , always(总是,一直) , never(从不)
如:I often go to school on foot.  My father works in a school.
  Mike watches TV every day.  
I usually play computer games on the weekend.  
C
、表示现时的状态和现在瞬间动作
如:How are you? You look happy.  
What’s the matter with you? I have a headache.
What do you have for lunch?  I have some chicken.
注意  英语动词的现在时与原形同形。但当主语是第三人称单数时,须在词尾加-s -es。例如:
I have a fish for dinner.  Her mother works in a hospital.  
Amy often goes to school by bike.  Mr. Liu teaches us English.  
-es 的动词必须是以“sh , ch , o ”等字母结尾的。
如:watches , teaches , goes , washes  
2
        一般将来时
表示在将来会发生的事或动作。它常与表示将来的时间连用,如:tomorrow , next week , next year , this morning , this afternoon , this evening 等。
注意  一般将来时小学阶段主要学了两种结构:
be going to + 动词的原形 / 地点      will + 动词的原形      
例句: I’m going to go shopping this afternoon.  
She is going to Hong Kong next week.
You will see many birds in the sky.
3
        现在进行时
表示说话时正在进行的动作或现阶段一直在进行的动作。
注意它的构成是:be的现在时形式(am , is , are)加动词的ing形式。如:What are you doing?  I’m writing a letter.  
What are they doing?  They’re swimming.
Is he playing chess?  Yes, he is.
Look, Amy is reading an English book.
注意 动词的ing形式的构成规则:
        一般的直接在后面加上ing ,
doing , going , working , singing , eating
e 结尾的动词,要先去e再加ing ,如having , writing
双写最后一个字母的(此类动词极少)有:running , swimming , sitting , getting
4、一般过去时
主要用来表示在特定过去时间中一次完成的动作或一度存在的状态,也可表示过去的习惯动作。它与现在时间不发生关系,它表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在。它经常与表示过去的时间连用。如:
I went to a park yesterday.  I read a book last night.
I watched TV yesterday evening.
I went on a big trip last weekend.  I failed my Chinese test.  
注意 一般过去时主要体现在动词的形式要用过去式,动词的过去式的构成规则有:
A、规则动词
        一般直接在动词的后面加ed ;
如 worked , learned , cleaned , visited
 以e结尾的动词直接加d ;如 lived , danced , used
        以辅音字母加y结尾的动词要改yi再加ed (此类动词较少)如 study – studied carry – carried  worry – worried
playstay除外)
双写最后一个字母(此类动词较少)如 stopped  
B、不规则动词(此类词并无规则,须熟记)小学阶段要记住以下动词的原形和过去式:
sing – sang ,      eat – ate ,    see – saw ,     have – had ,    do – did ,      go – went ,    take – took ,    buy – bought ,    get – got ,     read – read ,    fly – flew ,    am/is – was ,    are – were ,     say – said ,    leave – left ,     swim – swam ,     tell – told ,      draw – drew ,    come – came ,   lose – lost ,       find – found ,    drink – drank ,    hurt – hurt  ,   feel – felt

注意句子的形式:
1
        肯定句:是指用肯定的语气来陈述的句子,如:
I’m a student.  She is a doctor.  He works in a hospital.  
There are four fans in our classroom.
I’m going to buy a comic book tonight. He will eat lunch at 12:00.
I’m reading a book.  They are swimming.
I watched TV yesterday evening.
2
        否定句:含有否定词或表示否定意义词的句子,如:
I’m not a student.  She is not (isn’t) a doctor.  
He does not (doesn’t) work in a hospital.
There are not four fans in our classroom.
I’m not going to buy a comic book tonight.
He will not (won’t) eat lunch at 12:00.
I’m not reading a book.  They are not (aren’t) swimming.
I did not (didn’t) watch TV yesterday evening.
注意 小结:否定句主要是在肯定句的基础上加上了否定词 “not”。有动词be的句子则“not”加在be后面,可缩写成“isn’taren’t”,但am not 一般都分开写。没有动词be的句子则要先在主要动词的前面加上一个助动词(dodoesdid),然后在它后面加上“not”,你也可以把它们缩写在一起如“don’t , doesn’t , didn’t )。这三个助动词要根据人称和时态来选择,其中“does”只用于一般现在时主语是第三人称单数的情况,而“did”只用于一般过去时,不论主语是什么人称和数,都用“did”
3
、一般疑问句:是指询问事实的句子,此类句子必须用“yes”,或“no”来回答。如:Are you a student? Yes, I am / No, I’m not.  
Is she a doctor? Yes, she is. / No, she isn’t.  
Does he work in a hospital? Yes, he does. / No, he doesn’t.  
Are there four fans in our classroom? Yes, there are. / No, there aren’t.
Are you going to buy a comic book tonight?  
Yes, I am. / No, I am not. (Yes, we are. / No, we aren’t.)
Will he eat lunch at 12:00? Yes, I will. / No, I will not(won’t).
Are you reading a book?  Yes, I am. / No, I am not.
Are they swimming? Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t.
Did you watch TV yesterday evening? Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t.
注意 小结:一般疑问句是在肯定句的基础上,
把动词be调到首位,其他照写,末尾标点符号变成问号即可。
没有动词be的句子则要在句首加上一个助动词(dodoesdid)再把紧跟在后面的动词变回原形,末尾标点符号变成问号即可。
这三个助动词也要根据人称和时态来选择,其中“does”只用于一般现在时主语是第三人称单数的情况,而“did”只用于一般过去时,不论主语是什么人称和数,都用“did” 。一般疑问句有个重要的原则就是问和答要一致,即问句里的第一个单词(助动词)和简略答句里的这个词是一致的。
4
、特殊疑问句:以特殊疑问词(what , where , who , which , when , whose , why , how等)开头引导的句子。此类句子应该问什么就答什么,不能用“yes no”来回答。如:
What is this? It’s a computer.
What does he do? He’s a doctor.
Where are you going? I’m going to Beijing.
Who played football with you yesterday afternoon? Mike.
Which season do you like best?  Summer.
When do you usually get up? I usually get up at 6:30.
Whose skirt is this? It’s Amy’s.
Why do you like spring best? Because I can plant trees.
How are you? I’m fine. / I’m happy.
How did you go to Xinjiang?  I went to Xinjiang by train.
其中how又可以和其他一些形容词连用组成特殊疑问词组用来提问,如: how many(多少(数量),  how much(多少(), how tall(多高), how long(多长),  how big(多大),  how heavy(多重)
例句:How many pencils do you have? I have three pencils.
How many girls can you see? I can see four girls.
How many desks are there in your classroom? There are 51.
小结:how many 用来提问可数名词的数量,主要有以上三种句式搭配,
How many +
名词复数 + do you have?   你有多少……
How many +
名词复数 + can you see?   你能看见多少……
How many +
名词复数 + are there…?    有多少……

 

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